Properly selected hybrid as the basis for the formation of high yields of sunflower
Stable production of sunflower and high profitability of this crop depends on the correct choice of the future hybrid and the technology of its cultivation.
In the market of sunflower seeds in Ukraine there are many manufacturers of seed material – from domestic state and commercial organizations to foreign multinational companies. And everyone declares that they offer the best and most high-yielding hybrids. But in practice, the commodity producer is sometimes disappointed in this whether the correct hybrid is chosen. So why does this happen: either the declared description of the hybrid is not true, or does the commodity producer does something wrong?
In fact, when a hybrid is offered for cultivation, it has already passed a long way in breeding. And every hybrid that survived in this breeding process is worthy of the right to commercial use. Yes, they are all more productive and have improved properties compared to previous hybrids. But this must be able to use! Hybrids, like people, have their properties, signs and their character. To each hybrid, as well as to a person in society, one must find an approach and then it will thank you with its results. Hybrid can feel good or bad in different conditions. Therefore, we do not have one single best hybrid of sunflower in Ukraine, because the country is big and weather-climatic conditions in it are different.
So, the choice of a hybrid should be differentiated. In the east and south of the country, this should be drought-resistant and heat-resistant hybrids with the morphology of the steppe ecotype, various ripening groups – for maneuvering in the sowing time, in order to shift the critical phase of sunflower “seed pouring” from the peak of summer heat. In the central regions of the country, where the most favorable conditions for growing, you need to use hybrids with high yield potential. And in the north and west hybrids should be precocious with morphology of plants of forest-steppe ecotype and have increased resistance to diseases.
LLC “LIST” has the opportunity to offer producers a few hybrids for steppe and forest-steppe zones of Ukraine. Breeders of the enterprise, clearly understanding that the size of the yield in each specific case is determined by the limiting factors of the environment and the interaction of the morphophysiological properties of the genotype together with this and the peculiarities of the growth and development of the hybrid, have created sunflower hybrids for various soil-climatic conditions of Ukraine.
For the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine the hybrids Derkul, Aidar, Donbass, Credo, Liman OR are the most suitable. The first three hybrids have already been tested by time and occupy significant areas under cultivation in Lugansk, Donetsk, Zaporozhye and Kherson regions. The peculiarities of the hybrids of Derkul, Aydar, and Donbass are their early ripening (the vegetation period is from 100 to 110 days), high heat and drought resistance, unpretentiousness to the technology of cultivation and the timing of return to their original place, ecological plasticity with stable yield.
Drought in the southern regions is one of the main factors limiting the receipt of high yields. The critical period of sunflower is the first week after flowering, when a spare tissue is formed in the seeds for the accumulation of oil, and the third-fourth week is the period of intensive seed filling. Therefore, the sowing of these hybrids in the early periods in the south allows the plants to pass critical phases of development with minimal negative consequences even before the peak of soil and air drought that occurs in August. Using this technology, together with the special properties of the hybrids of Derkul, Aidar, Donbass, the commodity producer receives a harvest of sunflower at a level of 25-30 c / ha.
In the east of the country we observe a slightly different picture. Sowing sunflower in the early periods, the critical phases of plant development fall just at the hottest period in these regions – the end of July and the beginning of August. Therefore, it is advisable to sow in late May-early June. Young plants are easier to tolerate drought in summer, and the critical phases of hybrids are already at the end of August, when the average daily temperature drops down. Cool nights come and plants grow dew, which allows the leaves to restore the turgor of cells and conduct normal photosynthesis. Due to the short vegetation period of hybrids of Derkul, Aydar and Donbas, it becomes possible to carry out sowing in late terms and harvest sunflower without desiccation.
Our new hybrid of the Credo sunflower has an increased heat and drought resistance due to the ideal architectonics of steppe ecotype plants (photo). Full horizontal inclination of the head with simultaneous closing of its upper leaves avoids the burning out of seeds from direct sunlight. The increased thickness of the head helps to protect the seeds from overheating, which creates optimal conditions for its filling.
Photo. Hybrid Credo with the architectonics of plants of the steppe ecotype.
In addition to the lack of moisture, which limits the yield in these areas, there is another negative factor: sunflower broomrape. With it, you can fight both chemical and breeding methods, creating new hybrids with genetic resistance to this parasitic plant.
The use of chemical means to protect sunflower from broomrape, particularly the Euro-Lightning herbicide, in conditions with a low amount of precipitation, may lead to the negative aftereffect of this herbicide on subsequent crops in the crop rotation. Insufficient soil moisture, high temperature and minimal tillage reduce the activity of microorganisms and, as a consequence, the proper disintegration of the active substance of the herbicide does not proceed properly. Therefore, we believe that in such regions it is advisable to grow hybrids with genetic resistance to broomrape, particularly hybrids Lyman OR and Commandor.
Lyman OR – a hybrid of the steppe direction with a vegetation period of 113-118 days and intensive growth. Combines increased resistance to drought and high temperatures with a significant yield potential at the same time. It has resistance to gray and white rot, fomopsis, fracture of the stem. Hybrid of intensive type, suitable for cultivation according to the “no-till” system.
For more northern regions, the Commandor hybrid was created, which is still in the State Variety trials. Plant height and vegetation period (110-115 days) are less than in the Liman OP hybrid, but with the same genetic resistance to 7 races of broomrape (A-G).
For the central regions of the country, the hybrids Lyman, Lyman OR, which have the greatest yield potential, are better suited. Hybrid Lyman, with a vegetation period of 115-120 days, an intensive type with a positive reaction to the introduction of mineral fertilizers and trace elements over the leaf surface. Has a less pronounced response to a decrease in yields when seeding occurs. Forms a yield of seeds with a high content of oleic acid (up to 85%).
To obtain early harvests or early release of the field for preparing the soil for sowing winter crops, it is advisable to use the early ripening hybrids, such as Stepok and Starobelsky with a vegetation period of up to 100 days. Early ripeness, rapid moisture yield of seeds during maturation, corresponding to the architectonics of plants, particularly – the semi-vertical position of the head, allows sowing them in the northern and western regions. Increased rainfall does not linger on the back of the head, thereby reducing the incidence of plants with white and gray rot.
A clear view of the agronomist about the properties and characteristics of the hybrids makes it possible to fully reveal their potential. Therefore, the staff of the LIST company is always ready for dialogue with the commodity producer for the common goal of obtaining high yields.